Andrea Rossi has been working quietly behind the scenes at the US Patent & Trademark Office in an attempt to get his e-cat low energy nuclear reaction technology (LENR) patented. An amendment Rossi has filed to his patent application on Sept. 16, 2014, indicates that Rossi may have changed his process somewhat.

Some of the new details about e-cat revealed in the application include:

  • The device is described as “A method for carrying out an exothermal reaction of nickel and hydrogen, characterized in that said method comprises the steps of providing a metal tube, introducing into said metal tube a nanometric nickel powder and injecting into said metal tube a hydrogen gas having a temperature much greater than 150 degrees Celsius (302 Fahrenheit) and a pressure greater than two bars.” Note: a bar is a unit used to measure air pressure.  According to’s bar conversion chart Rossi is using a oressure  29.01 pounds a square inch or 2.039 kilograms a square centimeter.


There you have it folks, Mr. Rossi’s process in a nut shell. Basically Rossi has had to reveal his process in order to get “patent protection.” Since the patent documents are public record anybody can look it up. That does not sound too different from the work that the Martin Fleischman Memorial Project is doing. The Fleischmann Project is currently testing powder similar to what’s described in Rossi’s patent to see if it is generating a nuclear reaction.

Some other revelations about e-cat from the patent include:

  • The nanometric nickel powder is described as a “nickel isotope powder.”


  • The hydrogen gas is injected into the tube at a pulsating pressure.


  • The hydrogen gas is kept a variable temperature between 150 and 500 degrees Celsius.

The big problem with Rossi’s process was pointed out by the patent examiner, he did not say whether it actually works or not. For that reason the Patent Office apparently denied the patent on March 26, 2014. Rossi later met with the examiner on April 22, 2014 to discuss the application.

During that meeting the Examiner seemed to admit that LENR does occur and concede a theoretical basis for it but wasn’t convinced Rossi had achieved it.  The Examiner; revealed as Sean P. Burke, stated that to work the nickel in the e-cat would have to “spontaneously ionize hydrogen gas and absorb the resulting proton.” The Examiner added, “the element of acceleration is necessary in the matter-it is the only way for the proton to overcome the basic Coulomb repulsion between the proton and the nickel nuclei.”

The headquarters of the United States Patent & Trademark Office

Mr. Burke believes that if the reaction occurred as Rossi stated it would occur spontaneously in nature and could happen to nickel at any time. He admitted that it might be a natural phenomenon which might be patentable.

Burke rejected the application because of an “inoperable claim.” Rossi apparently believes the claim is operable in the amendment filed by his attorney James V. Costigan of Hedman & Costigan PC. Rossi apparently has a very impressive law firm, Hedman & Costigan PC’s address is one Rockefeller Plaza, in New York City in other words Rockefeller Center.

It’s obvious that Rossi is committed to getting his process patented and he has the resources to do it. I imagine Mr. Costigan’s fees are not cheap, still if Rossi wants a patent he’s going to have to produce a working ecat sooner or later. I imagine that Cherokee Partners and Industrial Heat who paid $11 million for the ecat are pushing this process.